Are Quality Systems in place in India, where the clinical trials industry is exploding?Do clinical trials professionals have the knowledge, skills and experience to run clinical trials where the rights, safety, & welfare of human subjects is protected and where data are reliable for submission to FDA and EMA> In this Guest Commentary QA professional Anusha Reddy demystifies the GCP process in India outlining her approach to quality in clinical trials.
This marks the first edition of GxP Perspectives as a monthly blog. It has been too much work for one person to keep up with a weekly schedule. I will be using the GxP Perspectives Linkedin Group to keep on top of current developments with FDA, as well as discussions by group members. Also, youcan subscribe to the blog on the button to your right on the sidebar.
Improvising Quality in Clinical Trials
By Anusha Reddy
Over the last decade Clinical Trials in India have increased very rapidly in number. India has made a name for itself in the international pharmaceutical field as an ideal destination for worldwide companies to conduct clinical trials which is a test for both the government and the private sector to create a balance between ethics and trade The rise in the business brought sharp focus on the need to manage quality while conducting clinical trials.A need was, however, felt to develop our own Indian Guidelines to ensure uniform quality of clinical research throughout the country and to generate data for registration for new drugs before use in the Indian population. An Expert Committee set up by Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) in consultation with clinical expert has formulated GCP guideline for generation of clinical data on drugs.
The Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) has introduced several guidelines and regulations, in an effort to maintain and ensure credibility, integrity, safety, well being and quality of clinical trials, some which includes guidelines on approval of clinical trials, CTD, Clinical trial Inspection, registration of clinical trials, CROs, and Ethics Committee’s. It constituted NDAC to review applications of new drugs and clinical trials, introduced prescreening of applications in order to expedite and streamline the process of application by ensuring completeness and has recently made compensation mandatory for injury or deaths during trials and which would increase the number of volunteers and patients going for a trial in India, according to experts.
A good quality clinical trial should, address an important question, have the potential to make an actual difference to patients, use the finest available research techniques, generate significant data, be scientifically and ethically sound. Recognition of GCP at the sponsor, CRO and the investigator site will improve the quality of clinical trials and finally leads to the acceptance of clinical trials.As per ISO (International Organization for Standardization) quality is defined as the features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. In clinical trials, poor quality has much more serious outcomes than discontented customers. Failure to ensure quality in clinical trials can result in undue harm to research participants, invalid data, and consequently, wrong conclusions about the safety and efficacy of the drug being tested. Additionally poor quality is a call for a regulatory inspection.
Determined efforts to improve quality in clinical trials have increased noticeably over the past decade. Recently the Department of Medical Education has imposed a temporary ban on clinical drug trials and research projects in all government and private medical colleges and hospitals in the Karnataka State, India; however, later it was assured that no such measures are being undertaken. The reason behind such decision was especially lack of guidelines to regulate drug trials. An expert committee was set up to study and frame guidelines to regulate and re-organise clinical drug trials, which is a step towards a quality clinical trials.There are several reasons for poor quality in clinical trials and preventing them all is not an easy task. The objective should be to limit their number and their effect on the trial outcomes. This can be achieved by taking steps at the initial stage in protocol development and at the trial set up phase to obtain a high quality data in clinical trials; however, this alone does not result in high quality. Furthermore, planning should be accompanied by adequate oversight through proper routine monitoring and auditing of the trials with necessary corrective and preventive actions (CAPA) in place.
Measures should be taken to promote quality improvement in clinical trials by following standard operating procedures and implementing good documentation practices while performing study activities like drug accountability, Informed consent process, Safety reports, protocol deviations/violations and other protocol related activities which will provide reliable results and error free data when submitted to regulatory agencies for approvals.
A quality system proposition to good clinical practice conformance will establish quality in clinical trials by identification and setup of standards, applying them by those involved in the conduct of clinical trial, tracking the areas that are non-complaint with the standard procedures or applicable regulatory requirements, take actions to prevent the recurrence in future in the identified areas.Developing and using metrics that are meaningful within an organization facilitate in measuring the quality in clinical trials. For example, preparing a protocol from the stage of drafting to finalizing, here with increase in amendments the time increases and quality is reduced (but number of amendments is often not the reflection of protocol quality). Other example for measuring the quality includes the number of data clarifications forms (DCFs) raised per case report form (CRF); increase in the number of data queries indicates the poor data quality. Based on these metrics one can measure the quality and can improve those areas.
In Conclusion, systems with procedures or measures that assure the quality of every aspect of the clinical trial should be implemented. Quality should be applied to each stage of data handling to ensure that all data are reliable and have been processed correctly. This extent of transparency and accountability of clinical trial processes ensures ongoing quality control and quality assurance, but in addition, makes it easy to assertively address inquiries from regulatory agencies.
The 3rd Proactive GCP Compliance Conference taking place April 2-4 in Arlington, VA – GCP Conference Website. Leading GCP experts from Lilly, Pfizer, J&J, Novartis, Shire and many more address risk-based approaches to clinical quality that meet requirements and ensure patient safety. Special 15% discount off of the standard registration rate for GxP Perspectives readers. Register online at: GCP Conference and use discount code: P439GXP
In News From FDA:
FDA has issued the final guidance, “IRB Continuing Review after Clinical Investigation Approval.” GCP Guidance Documents may be found here: FDA GCP Website. The new guidance is on the right in the section “In The News.”
From: A Message from the Commissioner
Sent: Wednesday, February 29, 2012 04:14 PM
Subject: Announcement re Chief Counsel
I am thrilled to announce the permanent appointment of Elizabeth Dickinson as the Chief Counsel of the Food and Drug Administration, effective Monday, March 12, 2012.
As many of you know, Liz has had a long and distinguished history at the Agency; she joined the Office of the Chief Counsel in 1994. Over the years, Liz has served as legal counsel to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research and the Office of the Commissioner on innovator and generic drug review issues, orphan drug development, and biosimilars; has implemented pediatric exclusivity and pediatric drug development programs; has worked closely with the Department of Justice on dozens of cases addressing Waxman-Hatch issues and preemption; and has coordinated the development of the Office of the Chief Counsel’s flexible workplace program.
A graduate of the University of Massachusetts and Northeastern University School of Law, Liz is highly regarded by both her internal colleagues and those across the food and drug bar. Over the years, Liz has received numerous awards for distinguished service, leadership and her outstanding legal skills.
Liz has been serving as Acting Chief Counsel since August 2011, and we have been grateful for her hard work and dedication each day that she has been on the job. It is terrific to know that she will be serving the Agency in this role permanently as we move forward. Please join me in congratulating Liz.
Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D.
Commissioner of Food and Drugs
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